Volume 4 - 2014 - Issue 1

1. Antimicrobial, antioxidant activity and phytochemical analysis of an endophytic species of Nigrospora isolated from living fossil Ginkgo biloba

Authors: Pawle G, Singh SK

Recieved: 02 August 2013, Accepted: 15 December 2013, Published: 20 January 2014

Nigropsora sp. was isolated as an endophyte from a medicinal plant, Ginkgo biloba. Ethyl acetate extract of the fungus was evaluated for antimicrobial and free radical scavenging (DPPH) activity. Ethyl acetate extract was effective against Escherichia coli (R-2046), Klebsiella sp. (R-2434), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Candida albicans (NCIM 3471) and Geotrichum sp. (NFCCI- 2521) while it did not show activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NFCCI-1248), Nodulisporium sp. (NFCCI- 2264) and Syncephalastrum sp. (NFCCI-2269). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ethyl acetate extract evaluated by tube broth dilution method was recoerded as 2.5mg/ml against all test organisms while by agar dilution method it was recorded as 1.25mg/ml against E. coli, 0.15625mg/ml against S. aureus and 0.3125mg/ml against Klebsiella sp. and C. albicans. The TLC-bioautography assay, used to screen the plant extracts for antimicrobial activity and localization of the active compounds indicated the presence of a number of inhibitory compounds with activity against tested microorganisms. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence phenolic compounds and anthraquinones. Nigrospora sp. was also examined for in vitro antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging assay. The ethyl acetate extract of the fungus showed potent antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 9.28µg/ml compared to the IC50 value of standard ascorbic acid, 1.74μg/ml.

Keywords: Bioautographic screening – endophyte – Ginkgo biloba – MIC – Phytochemical analysis


2. Nutraceutical composition of wild species of genus Lentinus Fr. from Nothern India

Authors: Sharma SK, Atri NS

Recieved: 22 August 2013, Accepted: 26 September 2013, Published: 20 January 2014

Neutraceutical composition of wild edible fungal species of genus Lentinus viz. L. sajor-caju, L. connatus, L. torulosus, L. cladopus and L. squarrosulus was determined. Nutraceuticals composition was done with the use of HPLC-ELSD, GC-MS, UPLC and standard quantitative methods. Sugars, fatty acids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, lycopene, phenolic compounds and amino acids were analyzed. All the species composed of three types of sugars evaluated, sucrose (0.488-4.941 %) was found to be predominated over glucose and xylose. Among fatty acids, SFA content ranged from 26.76–57.36 %, MUFA 16.57–67.35% and PUFA 0.70–1.45 %. Ascorbic acid content ranged from 0.42–0.49 mg/100g, β-carotene 0.08–0.22 μg/100g, lycopene content 0.032–0.086 μg/100g, phenolic compounds 6.39–20.11 mg/100g of gallic acid. Amongst amino acids, aspartic acid 0.25–0.37%, arginine 0.21–0.29 %, alanine 0.09–0.15 %, proline 0.01–0.06 % .and tyrosine amount ranged 0.16–0.24 %.

Keywords: Carotenoids – Lentinus – nutraceutical – wild mushrooms


3. Bioactive metabolites from an endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. isolated from Centella asiatica

Authors: Devi NN, Prabakaran JJ

Recieved: 07 November 2013, Accepted: 28 December 2013, Published: 11 February 2014

Endophytes are important sources for the discovery of bioactive compounds. The potential role of the endophyte and its biologically active metabolites in its association with its host has been investigated. In the present study the antioxidant activity of the endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. isolated from medicinal plant Centella asiatica was evaluated by its ability to scavenge DPPH free radicals. Bioactive metabolites present in the ethyl acetate extract from the endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. were analysed by using GC-MS. The metabolites were investigated for cytotoxic activity. The extract of Penicillium sp. exhibited high antioxidant activity with IC50 value, 54.72±2.19μg/ml. The ethyl acetate extract of Penicillium sp. has high antioxidant capacity of 325.76±0.14 mg equivalent to ascorbic acid. The ethyl acetate extract of Penicillium sp. demonstrated a promising cytotoxic activity against HeLa, A431 and human breast cancer (MCF7). These results indicate that endophytic fungi isolated from medicinal plants could be a potential source for bioactive compounds.

Keywords: Centella asiatica – DPPH – endophytes – GC-MS – Penicillium sp.


4. Effect of environmental and nutritional conditions on phosphatase activity of Aspergillus awamori and viability test of the strain

Authors: Jena SK, Rath CC

Recieved: 04 November 2013, Accepted: 20 January 2014, Published: 14 February 2014

Phosphatase production by Aspergillus awamori (S3-4) was investigated by batch culture. The pH, incubation period, temperature, carbon and nitrogen sources were optimized for maximum enzyme production. Production of acid phosphatase was more in comparison to alkaline phosphatase in all conditions. The optimal pH, incubation period, temperature were reported to be pH 6, 6 days and 290C respectively. Maximum enzyme activity was observed at 3% of sucrose and 0.1% of ammonium nitrate, in the medium. Molecular characterization of rDNA of ITS region was done for identification and it was identified as Aspergillus awamori, a cryptic species of Aspergillus niger.

Keywords: biofertilizers – Cryptic species – ITS1/ITS4


5. Diversity of agarics (gilled mushrooms) of Maharashtra, India

Authors: Senthilarasu G

Recieved: 30 October 2013, Accepted: 29 January 2014, Published: 15 February 2014

Diversity of agarics (gilled mushrooms) of A total of 13 species belonging to 10 genera in 9 families collected from Pune and Western Ghats of Mahabaleshwar and Mulshi have been described. Among them, Amanita flavofloccosa is being repoted for the first time from Western Ghats. The remaining species are being reported for the first time from Maharashtra state. Further, 14 species already reported from Maharashtra were also collected from different regions in the present study. In addition, a checklist of gilled mushrooms of Maharashtra is provided on the basis of published reports. A total of 178 species in 68 genera (including 21 new species and two new genera Chlorolepiota and Singerina) belonging to 23 families and 5 orders (Agaricales, Boletales, Cantharellales, Polyporales and Russulales) have been described from Maharashtra. Twenty six new species and 7 new varieties that are contravening particular Articles of the Code are excluded.

Keywords: Agaricomycetes – checklist – macrofungi – taxonomy – Western Ghats


6. Three new asterinaceous fungi from western ghats, India

Authors: Patil CR, Bhise MR, Patil SC

Recieved: 30 October 2013, Accepted: 29 January 2014, Published: 15 February 2014

In present paper two species and a variety are taxonomically described as new to science belonging to the genus Asterina, namely, A. latifoliae sp. nov., A. lanceolatae sp. nov. and Asterina dissiliens (Sydow) Doidge var. celastrii var. nov. Comparative account of each new taxa is provided.

Keywords: Asterina – taxonomy – Western Ghats


7. Optimization of submerged culture conditions for mycelial biomass production with enhanced antibacterial activity of the medicinal macro fungus Xylaria sp. Strain R006 against drug resistant bacterial pathogens

Authors: Ramesh V, Karunakaran C, Rajendran A

Recieved: 30 October 2013, Accepted: 29 January 2014, Published: 15 February 2014

In the present study the fruiting bodies of macrofunguswas isolated from courtallum hills and identified as Xylaria sp. R006 based on morphological characteristics and it was reinforced by 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Due to the insufficient wild fruiting bodies of Xylaria sp., submerged culture conditions and nutritional requirements for the production of mycelial biomass with improved antibacterial activity were studied in shaker flask culture. Among the various culture media, maximum biomass production of 1.5, g/L was observed on potato dextrose broth over a period of 40 d incubation at pH of 5.5 in 25°C -30°C. Among the carbon sources, glucose supplemented basal medium showed an effective biomass production of 2.3 g/L. whereas in nitrogen sources, yeast extract had significant biomass production of 1.3 g/L. The optimized ethyl acetate extract of cultural filtrate showed a maximum inhibition zone of 28.4 mm and 26.3 mm against multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa strain 1 and S. aureus strain 5, respectively.

Keywords: environmental parameter – improved bioactivity– Xylaria sp. multi drug resistant human bacterial pathogens


8. Conocybe apala (Fr.: Fr.) Arnolds, Helvella solitaria P. Karst. and Hygrocybe miniata (Fr.) P. Kumm.; three new mushrooms from India

Authors: Kumar M, Harsh NSK, Prasad R

Recieved: 17 December 2013, Accepted: 01 March 2014, Published: 15 March 2014

This paper deals with the three new mushroom records from India. Conocybe apala and Hygrocybe miniata were found in New Forest Campus of Forest Research Institute Dehradun, while Helvella solitaria was found in Deovan Chakrata, district Dehradun; which are being described with macro and microscopic features.

Keywords: asci – ascospores – basidia – basidiospore – new mushroom – paraphyses – taxonomic description


9. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of secondary metabolites from endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgatula VN2

Authors: Arivudainambi USE, Kanugula KA, Kotamraju S, Karunakaran C, Rajendran A

Recieved: 25 December 2014, Accepted: 24 February 2014, Published: 15 March 2014

Development of new drugs, especially in area of oncology and infectious diseases, represents today one of the most important research. Fungal endophytes are receiving increasing attention by natural product chemists due to their diverse and structurally unprecedented compounds making them interesting candidates for drug discovery. In the present investigation, aims to study the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of secondary metabolites from enfophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgatula VN2. The ethyl acetate extract of partially purified fraction E had strong cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 cell lines with concentration increase to 30 μg/mL the cell viability was decreased by 59.0% and 45.6% respectively. Further, fraction E had an effective antibacterial activity against multidrug resistant S. aureus. The fraction E produced a maximum inhibition zone of 19.8 mm against S. aureus strain 4. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the fraction E was found to be 31.2 to 500 µg/mL against S. aureus strains. In GC-MS analysis, one predominate peak with retention time of 20.9 and molecular ion peak at m/z 278.7 was observed.

Keywords: antibacterial activity – cytotoxic activity – Pestalotiopsis virgatula – Staphylococcus aureus


10. Wood-rotting fungi in East Khasi Hills of Meghalaya, Northeast India, with special reference to Heterobasidion perplexa (a rare species ‒ new to India)

Authors: Lyngdoh A, Dkhar MS

Recieved: 10 January 2014, Accepted: 06 March 2014, Published: 25 March 2014

Field surveys and collection of the basidiocarps of wood-rotting fungi were carried out in eight forest stands of East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya, India. Seventy eight wood-rotting fungi belonging to 23 families were identified. The undisturbed Mawphlang sacred grove was found to harbour a much larger number of the wood-rotting fungi (33.54 %) as compared to the other forest stands studied. Similarly, logs also harboured the maximum number of wood-rotting fungi (59.7 %) while living trees harboured the least (7.8%). Microporus xanthopus had the highest frequency percentage of occurrence with 87.5 %, followed by Cyclomyces tabacinus, Microporus affinis and Trametes versicolor with 62.5 %. Majority of the wood-rotting fungi are white-rot fungi (89.61%) and only few are brown-rots. A rare species of wood-rotting fungus, Heterobasidion perplexa which has been reported only from Nepal, was found growing on stumps and logs of Pinus kesiya in two collection sites. This fungus is new to India.

Keywords: diversity ‒ new record ‒ sacred grove ‒ wood logs


11. Three new records of Poroid Aphyllophorales to Indian fungal flora from Pune district

Authors: Ranadive KR

Recieved: 10 January 2014, Accepted: 30 March 2014, Published: 10 May 2014

Pune is an important district of Maharashtra. Western Ghats of Pune districts is very much rich in the fungal flora of fleshy as well as wood rotting fungi. Three records namely Phellinus arctostaphyli (Long) Niemelä., Phellinus sanfordii (C.G. Lloyd) Ryvarden & Podoscypha petaloides (Berk.) Boidin are the valuable additions to the total count of Aphyllophoraceous fungal diversity from India for the first time.

Keywords: Basidiomycetes – fungi – semi-evergreen forest – Western Ghats


12. Immersaria and Koerberiella, two new generic records to India

Authors: Pandit GS

Recieved: 10 January 2014, Accepted: 30 March 2014, Published: 12 May 2014

The crustose lichen genera Koerberiella and Immersaria were discovered from the North-Western ghats of India and represents new generic records for the lichen flora of the Indian continent. The genus Koerberiella is represented here by a sterile isidiate morphotype of K. wimmeriana from the rocky outcrops of Kas and Immersaria by a species closely related to I. olivacea from the Panchgani plateau.

Keywords: lichen – outcrops – Porpidiaceae – taxonomy


13. Detection and quantification of trace elements (Chromium, Vanadium, Selenium) in some Ghanaian mushrooms using atomic absorption spectrometry

Authors: Quarcoo A, Adotey G, Gordon A

Recieved: 14 February 2014, Accepted: 02 March 2014, Published: 05 June 2014

Trace metallic elements such as Chromium (Cr), Vanadium (V), and Selenium (Se) have potential beneficial effects on glucose metabolism in people with non-communicable diseases especially type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to determine the presence and concentration of trace elements (Chromium, Vanadium, and Selenium) in the fruiting bodies of fresh mushrooms commonly consumed in Ghana namely, Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom), Agaricus bisporus (button mushroom), Ganoderma lucidum (wild Ganoderma), Termitomyces clypeatus (common edible mushroom). Ganoderma lucidum was obtained from the wild while the others came from the market. The concentration of these metals Cr, V, and Se, as determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) was found to be 0.6mg/kg, 0.4mg/kg, and 334.48mg/kg respectively in button mushroom, 1.3mg/kg, 0.4mg/kg, and 375.78mg/kg respectively in common edible mushroom, 0.2mg/kg, 0.4mg/kg, and 466.12mg/kg respectively in oyster mushroom, and 0.96mg/kg, 0.4mg/kg, and 420.06mg/kg respectively in Ganoderma lucidum. The highest concentrations of these metals were Cr (1.3 mg/kg) found in Termitomyces clypeatus; V (0.4 mg/kg) for all of them; and Se (466.12 mg/kg) in Pleorotus ostreatus. The mushrooms here examined may be considered as safe sources of trace minerals reputed to be of some value in the metabolism of glucose and hence beneficial in controlling the incidence and management of type 2 diabetes and its effects.

Keywords: garicus bisporus – atomic absorption spectroscopy – chromium – Ganoderma lucidum – mushrooms – Pleurotus ostreatus – selenium – Termitomyces clypeatus – vanadium


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Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology (Journal of Fungal Biology) publishes reviews, research articles and methodology papers and articles in environmental and appied mycology. The official journal language is English.

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