Volume 6 - 2016 - Issue 4

1. Documentation of wild edible mushrooms from Meghalaya, Northeast India

Authors: Kalita K, Bezbaroa RN, Kumar R, Pandey S

Recieved: 30 April 2016, Accepted: 29 September 2016, Published: 30 October 2016

The present study aimed to generate information on the mushroom diversity from Shyrwat and Upper Shillong Reserve Forests of Meghalaya, Northeast India. A total of 22 mushrooms were collected during the rainy season (July to September) 2014, and identified on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. The mushrooms representing 16 genera, 14 families and 6 orders were identified. Based on the traditional knowledge obtained from local people, a total of 11 species, viz. Armillaria mellea, Boletus edulis, Gomphus floccosus, Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius indigo, Laccaria laccata,, Lactarius rubidus, Lentinus edodes, Ramaria formosa, Russula parvovirescens and Suillus bovinus were found to be edible. Out of these 11 edible species, 7 species were first time recorded from the investigated areas.  Therefore, detail morphological and microscopic characteristics of these 7 species are documented in this study

Keywords: Boletus edulis – Lactarius deliciosus – Lentinus edodes – Russula parvovirescens


2. Additions to helicoid fungi from India

Authors: Singh PN, Singh SK

Recieved: 18 August 2016, Accepted: 05 October 2016, Published: 30 October 2016

The present paper describes four new species of helicosporous fungi, namely Moorella heterosporous, Helicoma eucalypti, Helicosporium myrtacearum (collected on Eucalyptus sp.) and H. xylophilous (collected on unidentified dead wood). All the treated taxa were gathered from Western Ghats region, India.

Keywords: helicosporous fungi – hyphomycetes – taxonomy – Western Ghats


3. Stimulation of the production of new volatile and non-volatile metabolites by endophytic Aspergillus niger using small organic chemicals

Authors: Toghueo KRM, Dinkar S, Boyom FF

Recieved: 13 June 2016, Accepted: 20 October 2016, Published: 30 October 2016

This study was designed to observe the effect of small organic chemicals on the production of volatile and non-volatile metabolites by an endophytic strain of Aspergillus niger isolated from the roots of Terminalia catappa Linn. (Tropical-almond, Combretaceae). The fungus was cultured for 6 days at 25°C in static condition in potato dextrose broth (PDB), supplemented with 1% acetone, 1% DMSO, 1% ethanol, and 1µM 5-azacytidine. The ethyl acetate extracts were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results of HPLC analysis showed increased content of many compounds in PDB culture supplemented with 5-azacytidine, while supplementation with acetone led to a new compound at retention time (RT≈35.87 min), as well as DMSO, and ethanol (RT≈38.05 min). The GC-MS analysis of the ethyl acetate extract of untreated A.niger showed the presence of 6 volatile metabolites of which oxalic acid, isobutyl propyl ester  was the most abundant compound (60.79%). The chromatographic profile of extracts from A. niger cultured with acetone, DMSO, ethanol and 5-azacytidine showed 12, 16, 14 and 13 volatile compounds respectively. Cyclohexanecarboxaldehyde,3,3-dimethyl-5-oxo- was the most abundant compound representing 58.21%, 40.12% and 64.38% in acetone, DMSO and ethanol supplemented cultures extracts respectively. For the 5-azacytidine treated fungus, 9-octadecenoic acid (Z)- (26.91%) and tetradecanoic acid, 12-methyl-, methylester (21.35%) were the most abundant. In addition, a new unidentified compound was detected in the extract of 5-azacytidine treated fungus. This study highlights the potential of small organic chemicals to increase the yield and to stimulate the production of new secondary metabolites by A. niger.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger – endophytic fungi – GC-MS – HPLC – small organic chemicals – Terminalia catappa


4. Fungal phylogenetic diversity in estuarine sediments of Gautami Godavari River, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Authors: Khandavilli R, Meena R, Shenoy BD

Recieved: 12 July 2016, Accepted: 25 October 2016, Published: 16 November 2016

Mangroves are a unique ecosystem that experiences fluctuations in salinity which is influenced by terrestrial and marine environment, tidal waves and wind velocity. The aforesaid factors provide a suitable environment for phylogenetically and physiologically diverse microorganisms to grow in a mangrove ecosystem. The present study was initiated to characterize the phylogenetic diversity of fungi in the sediments collected from Bhairavapalem estuary situated on the mouth of Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh, India. Fungi were isolated using serial-dilution method on potato dextrose agar medium amended with chloramphenicol. The isolated fungi were identified to belong in Aspergillus allahabadi, A. sydowii, A. terreus and Penicillium shearii clades in an ITS-based phylogenetic tree. Further studies employing a polyphasic approach are required to improve our understanding of genetic diversity, including cryptic species, of fungi those survive and flourish in dynamic marine niches such as estuaries in India

Keywords: DNA barcoding – Estuary – Identification – Mangrove – Taxonomy


5. Optimization of culture conditions for secondary mycelial growth of wild edible mushrooms from selected areas in Central Luzon, Philippines

Authors: Kalaw SP, Alfonso DO, Dulay RMR, De Leon AM, Undan JQ, Undan JR, Reyes RG

Recieved: 11 July 2016, Accepted: 10 November 2016, Published: 18 November 2016

This work highlighted the optimum culture conditions for secondary mycelia of selected Philippine wild macrofungi. The growth of different macrofungal species were evaluated on various indigenous culture media namely: coconut water gulaman, corn grit decoction gulaman, rice bran decoction gulaman, potato sucrose gulaman and potato dextrose agar (control). The effect of different physical conditions such as pH, illumination and temperature was also investigated. The daily mycelia diameter, mycelial density and incubation period were used in determining the optimum growth conditions.

Among the indigenous culture media evaluated, coconut water gulaman significantly recorded the largest mycelia growth diameter in ten mushroom species/strains (mostly lignolytic) while potato sucrose gulaman favored the growth of two strains of V. volvacea. No significant difference in mycelial diameter of C. cinerea Sto Domingo strain on different indigenous culture media was recorded In terms of the pH of the media, most of the evaluated mushrooms registered maximum mycelial growth and very thick to thick mycelial density in a medium having a pH ranging from 6.0 to 7.0. Moreover, illumination significantly influenced the mycelial growth of four mushroom species. Incubation in lighted condition favored the growth of L. sajor caju, and S. commune CLSU strain whereas dark condition showed maximum growth of G. lucidum strain B and L. tigrinus CLSU strain. G. lucidum strain A, L.  tigrinus CLSU strain, G. lucidum strain B and C. cinerea Sto Domingo strain incubated at room temperature (32 + 0.91oC) significantly exhibited wider mycelia diameter and shorter incubation period than those in air condition (23+ 1.35oC). No mycelial growth was observed at 9o + 0.0 oC

Keywords: indigenous culture media – physical factors – pH – illumination – temperature


6. Prillieuxina citricola sp. nov. from Himachal Pradesh, India.

Authors: Gautam AK, Avasthi S

Recieved: 24 August 2016, Accepted: 10 November 2016, Published: 21 November 2016

The present paper deals with a new black mildew collected on living leaves of lemon (Citrus aurantifolia, Rutaceae), from Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh, India. The fungus was identified as the species of Prillieuxina as it contains substraight, branched hyphae without appressoria and setae; orbicular thyriothecia and brown uniseptate ascospores. A critical comparison of current taxon was carried out with species of genus Prillieuxina reported earlier on plants of the family Rutaceae and other closely similar species and found that there are no earlier reports on Citrus aurantifolia. Therefore, new species Prillieuxina citricola is described and illustrated in the present paper based on morphology and specificity of host association.

Keywords: Asterinales – Black mildew – Citrus – foliicolous asexual fungi – taxonomy


7. Endophytic fungi of orchids of Arunachal Pradesh, North Eastern India

Authors: Govinda Rajulu MB, Suryanarayanan TS, Tangjang S

Recieved: 01 September 2016, Accepted: 03 November 2016, Published: 29 November 2016

The leaf and root tissues of eleven orchid species occurring in Arunachal Pradesh, north eastern state of India were screened for their endophyte assemblages. The diversity of endophytes was higher in the leaves when compared to that in the roots. The endophytes exhibited tissue specificity and there was little overlap between the leaf and root assemblages. Species of Xylaria were ubiquitous; they were isolated from both roots and leaves and were dominant in the roots of eight of the eleven orchids. It is suggested that traits such ability to  survive as saprotroph in plant litter, production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes for litter substrate utilization and elaboration of antimicrobial compounds for effective  competition result in the niche expansion of Xylariaceous fungi to occupy both root and leaf tissues as endophytes.

Keywords: leaf endophyte – root endophyte – Xylaria


8. Camptomeris albiziae on Albizia lebbeck: first record for North Western Himalayas and its distribution extension in India

Authors: Gautam AK, Avasthi S

Recieved: 29 August 2016, Accepted: 09 December 2016, Published: 18 December 2016

Camptomeris albiziae (Petch) E.W. Mason collected from leaves of Albizia lebek (Linn.) Willd., from Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh, India, is described and illustrated. A literature survey revealed that this fungus has not been so far reported from North Western Himalaya and thus represents an extension of distribution of the fungus in India. Details on symptoms on host plant leaves, taxonomic descriptions and illustrations are provided here.

Keywords: fungi – hyphomycetes –leaf spot – new record – taxonomy


9. Two species of Inocybe from Trans–Himalayan Ladakh (J&K), India

Authors: Yangdol R, Kumar S, Lalotra P, Sharma YP

Recieved: 14 April 2016, Accepted: 18 December 2016, Published: 23 December 2016

Inocybe (Fr.) Fr. is one of the diverse genera in the order Agaricales (Agaricomycotina, Basidiomycota). The genus was placed in the family Cortinariaceae by Singer (1986) but Hawksworth et al. (1995) and Kirk et al. (2008) included it under Inocybaceae. Worldwide 500 species are known so far (Kirk et al. 2008). Index Fungorum (2016) has mentioned 1807 records under this taxon. The genus is recognized by fibrillose to squamulose cap which is often umbonate and seldom viscid. Microscopically, basidiospores are either smooth, nodulose to angular or with thick spines and metuloid cystidia are formed frequently (Arora 1986, Larsson et al. 2009, Ryberg 2009). Ecologically, many members are known to form mycorrhizal association with Quercus, Pinus and Salix (Dunstan et al. 1998, Dar et al. 2009, Bougher et al. 2011). Although more than 34 species of Inocybe are known from various locations in India (Bilgrami et al. 1979, Jamaluddin et al. 2001, Dar et al. 2009, Beig et al. 2011, Farook et al. 2013, Gogoi & Parkash 2015, Pradeep et al. 2016), only two species namely Inocybe rimosa (Bull.) P. Kumm. and I. fastigiata (Schaff.) Quel. have been recorded from Jammu and Kashmir so far (Dar et al. 2009, Beig et al. 2011). In the present communication, two species of genus Inocybe have been described along with their macro- and microscopic details. Both these species constitute new records for India.

Keywords: Inocybe – Jammu and Kashmir – Ladakh – New record – Taxonomy


10. An updated taxonomic key on graphidoid taxa from the foot hills of Indian Himalaya

Authors: Mishra S, Joshi S, Upreti DK, Srivastava AK

Recieved: 15 August 2016, Accepted: 16 December 2016, Published: 23 December 2016

During the study, we encountered 29 species of graphidoid lichens under 6 genera from 15 localities in Udham Singh Nagar and Jim Corbett National Park in the terai region of Kumaun Himalaya. In addition to this, the graphidaceous taxa from the region were sampled and segregated to provide a detailed account of graphidoid taxa also with their ecology and distribution within the area. The paper mainly emphasizes on the total account of the graphidoid taxa along with an updated taxonomic key, taxonomic treatment and distribution in the study area.

Keywords: Graphidaceae – Jim Corbett National Park – Kumaun Himalaya – Terai – Udham Singh Nagar – Uttarakhand


11. Lichens of the Western Ghats new to India

Authors: Joshi S, Upreti DK

Recieved: 31 August 2016, Accepted: 20 December 2016, Published: 23 December 2016

Ten new records of lichens are described from the Nilgiri Hills, Silent Valley National Park and the area around Mahabaleshwar. A brief description of each species is provided with ecology and distribution, and well supported by illustrations.

Keywords: corticolous – Kerala – Maharashtra – records – saxicolous –Tamil Nadu


12. Molecular, physical and biochemical characterization of an edible mushroom, Psathyrella spadicea (P. Kumm.) Singer, from cold desert of Ladakh, India.

Authors: Yangdol R, Sharma YP, Bhattacherjee S, Acharya K

Recieved: 23 August 2016, Accepted: 15 December 2016, Published: 24 December 2016

The present investigation focuses on taxonomic identification based on morphological and molecular data, along with the biochemical, physical, and antioxidant activity of Psathyrella spadicea. The methanolic extract of this edible mushroom was analyzed for in vitro antioxidant activity in terms of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (EC50= 1. 31 mg/ml) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) (7.188 TE/mg) radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (15µg AAE/mg). Fluorescence analysis exhibited significant variation against treated reagents. Furthermore, High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profile of the mushroom extract indicated the presence of 15 phenolic compounds in this species. Hence, the studied wild macrofungus holds an elite position as food supplement in the nutrient deficient populations of the remote areas of Ladakh. 

Keywords: Antioxidant property – HPLC – Taxonomy – Ladakh


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Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology (Journal of Fungal Biology) publishes reviews, research articles and methodology papers and articles in environmental and appied mycology. The official journal language is English.

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